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JOKUL VOLANT TOD

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President of Poland Killed in Plane Crash in Russia  

2010-04-10 22:37:47|  分类: 科学与健康 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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President of Poland Killed in Plane Crash in Russia - 雪山飞狐 - JOKUL VOLANT TOD

Sergei Karpukhin/Reuters

An interior ministry officer stood guard near a part of the wreckage.

By ELLEN BARRY, MICHAL PIOTROWSKI and NICHOLAS KULISH

Published: April 10, 2010

MOSCOW — A plane carrying the Polish president, Lech Kaczynski, and dozens of the country’s top political and military leaders crashed in a heavy fog in western Russia on Saturday morning, killing everyone aboard.

Television showed chunks of flaming fuselage scattered in a bare forest near Smolensk, where the president was arriving for a ceremony commemorating the murder of more than 20,000 Polish officers by the Soviet secret police after the Red Army invaded Poland.

The governor of Smolensk region, Sergei Antufiyev, said the plane did not reach the runway but instead hit the treetops and broke apart. His spokesman later said that air traffic controllers had recommended the president’s jet land at another airport because of bad visibility, but that the crew decided to land anyway. The crash came as a staggering blow to Poland, wiping out a large swath of the country’s leadership, including the commanders of all four branches of the military, the head of the central bank, the president and many of his top advisors. In the numb hours after the crash, leaders in Warsaw evoked the horror of the massacre at Katyn, which stood for decades as a symbol of Russian domination.

“It is a damned place,” former president Aleksander Kwasniewski told TVN24. “It sends shivers down my spine. First the flower of the Second Polish Republic is murdered in the forests around Smolensk, now the intellectual elite of the Third Polish Republic die in this tragic plane crash when approaching Smolensk airport.”

“This is a wound which will be very difficult to heal,” he said.

Former president Lech Walesa, who presided over Poland’s transition from communism, cast the crash in similarly historic terms.

“This is the second disaster after Katyn,” he said. “They wanted to cut off our head there, and here the flower of our nation has also perished. Regardless of the differences, the intellectual class of those on the plane was truly great.”

The flag at the presidential palace in Warsaw was lowered as a crowd gathered, laying down flowers and lighting candles. According to Poland’s constitution, the leader of the lower house of parliament — now acting president — has 14 days to announce new elections, which must then take place within 60 days.

The plane was a Tupolev Tu-154, designed by the Soviets in the mid-1960s. Russia halted mass production of the jet roughly 20 years ago, and roughly 200 of them are still in service around the world, said Paul Hayes, director of accidents and insurance at Ascend, an aviation consultancy in London. He said the Polish president jet is one of the youngest of them.

Officials in Poland have repeatedly requested that the government’s aging air fleet be replaced.

Former Prime Minister Leszek Miller, who survived a helicopter crash in 2003, told Polish news he had long predicted such a disaster. “I once said that we will one day meet in a funeral procession, and that is when we will take the decision to replace the aircraft fleet,” he said.

A press secretary for Mr. Antufiyev, the governor of Smolensk, said the landing took place under very bad visibility, and Russian air traffic controllers advised the crew to land in Minsk, but the crew decided to land anyway. The Polish news channel TVN24 reported that moments before the crash, air traffic controllers had refused a Russian military aircraft permission to land, but that they could not refuse permission to the Polish plane.

The crash site was cordoned off, but Russian media reported that the airplane’s crew made several attempts to land before a wing hit the treetops and the plane crashed about half a mile from the runway. Correspondents reporting from the scene said the plane’s explosion was so powerful that fragments of it were scattered as far as the outskirts of Smolensk, more than a mile from the crash site itself.

For Poland, the losses raise the question of how a country of 38 million can replace a whole political class. Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski – one of the highest-ranking Polish leaders not on board the plane – told Poland’s Radio Zet that he was the one to inform Prime Minister Donald Tusk, who “was in tears when he heard about the catastrophe.”

Among those on board, according to theWeb site of the newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza, were Mr. Kaczynski; his wife, Maria; former Polish president-in-exile Ryszard Kaczorowski; the deputy speaker of Poland’s parliament, Jerzy Szmajdzinski; the head of the president’s chancellery, Wladyslaw Stasiak; the head of the National Security Bureau, Aleksander Szczyglo; the deputy minister of foreign affairs, Andrzej Kremer; the chief of the general staff of the Polish army, Franciszek Gagor; the president of Poland’s national bank, Slawomir Skrzypek; the commissioner for civil rights protection, Janusz Kochanowski; the heads of all of Poland’s armed forces; and dozens of members of parliament.

A spokesman for Poland’s ministry of foreign affairs said 88 people were on the plane. Russian emergency officials said the total number killed, including crew members, was 96.

Mr. Kaczysnki, 61, was elected president in 2005 just as his identical twin brother, Jaroslaw, became head of the nationalist-conservative Law and Justice government, often putting Poland on a collision course with Russia. Mr. Kaczynski forged close relationships with Ukraine and Georgia and pushed for their accession into NATO, arguing passionately that a stronger NATO would keep Russia from reasserting its influence over Eastern Europe.

The president’s death on Russian soil is bound to open old wounds in the relationship between Russia and Poland.

He had been due in western Russia to commemorate the anniversary of the murder of thousands of Polish officers by the Soviet Union at the beginning of World War II.

The ceremonies were to be held at a site in the Katyn forest close to Smolensk, where 70 years ago members of the Soviet secret police executed more than 20,000 Polish officers captured after the Soviet Army invaded Poland in 1939.

The two countries had been making strides in recent months to improve their ties, which had been strained since the days of communism, when Poland was a Soviet satellite. After the collapse of communism, its leaders embraced the West and snubbed Russia.

The Katyn massacre was one point of tension. On Wednesday, Prime Minister Vladimir V. Putin took a major step to address improve relations by becoming the first Russian or Soviet leader to join Polish officials in commemorating the anniversary. He was joined there by Mr. Tusk.

At the ceremony, Mr. Putin cast the executions as one of many crimes carried out by the “totalitarian regime” of the Soviet Union.

“We bow our heads to those who bravely met death here,” he said. “In this ground lay Soviet citizens, burnt in the fire of the Stalinist repression of the 1930s; Polish officers, shot on secret orders; soldiers of the Red Army, executed by the Nazis.”

Mr. Kaczynski, who is seen by the Kremlin as less friendly to Russia, was not invited to the joint Russian-Polish ceremony on Wednesday. Instead, Mr. Kaczynski decided to attend a separate, Polish-organized event in Katyn on Saturday.

Michal Piotrowski reported from Warsaw, Ellen Barry from Moscow and Nicholas Kulish from Berlin. Clifford J. Levy and Viktor Klimenko contributed reporting from Moscow and Nicola Clark from London.

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President of Poland Killed in Plane Crash in Russia - 雪山飞狐 - JOKUL VOLANT TOD

Michal Cizek/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Lech Kaczynski

纽约时报头条赫然报道了波兰总统卡钦斯基遭遇空难的消息,再接着往下翻,发现死亡者名单中囊括了不少掌握波兰权柄的军政精英,总统伉俪、副议长、安全部长、央行行长、总统府高官、军队总参谋长、陆军、空军、特种部队指挥官等重量级人物悉数遇难,这对波兰、对全世界都是悲伤的事件。

卡钦斯基总统是在抵达俄罗斯斯摩棱斯克参加纪念卡廷惨案70周年的纪念活动时,飞机失事遇难的。70年前,前苏联出于政治图谋和自私自利的理由,枪杀了波兰2万余名俘虏军官,制造了骇人听闻的卡廷惨案,在长达几十年里,这是个秘密,直到1990年波兰前总统访问苏联时,才使真相大白于天下;俄罗斯总理普京去年撰文坦承卡廷事件不道德,表现出反省的精神,最近准备和波兰方面共同举行纪念活动,也被视为俄罗斯的亲善表现,俄波双方希望通过此次纪念活动,实现两国的历史性和解。

 偏在此时,发生了这个空前的悲剧。这显然是希望改善两国关系的俄罗斯当局和波兰现政府都不愿看到的。除非俄罗斯的领导人愚蠢到极点,否则不会在自己家里这么搞掉外国政府的首脑。这是一场错误的时间、错误的地点发生的不合时宜的空难。

由于这一事件的发生,卡廷事件的悲剧色彩愈加浓厚,因此有媒体将此事件称为“悲剧中的悲剧”,它将成为波兰人民刻骨铭心的记忆,在未来的历史长流中,人们会不时检视这一创痛,至少他们会发现:波兰人民的苦难正如同千百年来它与同是斯拉夫民族的俄罗斯的反复较量的痛苦回忆一样,不是想消除就能够消除的,也不是所有人都愿意消除的。

我想,总有一股势力,它也许隐藏在某个阴暗的角落,蒙上了头巾,外人不知它的容貌,但它的内心充满邪恶和仇恨,随时准备为了某种信仰致命一击,为此不惜罪恶滔天!

据称,波兰专机飞行员未听俄罗斯交管员的建议飞往明斯克,而是决定在斯摩棱斯克机场降落。报道指出,当时天气十分恶劣,浓雾弥漫。飞机可能是在降落时被树剐到,没能在跑道上落地而坠落。

已经有人对飞行员提出了公开质疑,在面临安全状况的关键时刻,他应该比任何人都清楚危险的存在,他也应该比任何人都知道该怎么去避免危险的发生,他更知道他承担的责任何等重大乃至于不可出现一丝一毫的疏忽麻痹,波兰当代一半的政治精英尽数被他掌握,岂能儿戏?!

我们难以想象,一个区区的飞行员会有多大的仇恨促使他做出违背安全常识的决定,而这个常识应该成为他的下意识里最值得警醒的一桩事端。那么,也许他承载了波兰人民中的某种观念和意识,肩负了难以言说、过于沉重的使命,他被寄予了过多的希望和嘱托,令人窒息的强压在瞬间扼住了他的喉咙,使他在一阵晕眩之间,向着黑暗惨然一跃......

对一部分波兰人民来说,他也许是民族英雄;对另外一部分波兰人民来说,他将是千古罪人。

人类的和解从来不是无缘无故的,仇恨与和平,相对于政客们理性的判断与取舍,人心的说服将更为艰难,而人民的意志必将得以显现。俄罗斯和波兰也是如此。

以俄罗斯的高傲本性,何以在此问题上退后一步?而对于波兰受伤的心灵,迈出这一步又何其沉重!后冷战时代世界格局的演变,尤其是东欧地缘政治格局的发展,将波兰推到俄罗斯与西方博弈的前台,其战略地位和意义,对于一直在下坡路上徘徊的俄罗斯来说,不言而喻;而清算历史,是与波兰开展战略对话、建立务实合作关系的前提。

同样,身处俄罗斯与西方夹缝中的波兰,自有难言之隐,并非如表面上的左右逢源那么风光,十余年的经验使波兰认识到,采取一边倒的外交政策,并不符合波兰的国家利益,尤其是在大国博弈中充当“馅饼”的滋味并不好受,因此改弦更张,实行更加均衡的外交政策,是波兰的战略需要,而实现与俄罗斯的和解,是关键一步。如是,两国一拍即合。在现实利益驱动之下,强硬如普京,亲美如卡钦斯基,也会在如此悲惨的历史事件上走出和解的步伐。

但这种急功近利式的政治安排,必定不是铁板一块地受到支持,必定会遭受来自民意的反弹,民意的反弹会变成部分政客的意志。

而从更广大的时空中,它或将撕开已经开始愈合的伤口,将上面因年深日久的溃烂而形成的疮疤,展现于世人面前,让全世界感受到黑红的伤痛下波兰人民的血泪,让人们记取一个弱小国家被蹂躏的历史,提醒那些急于树立丰碑的政治动物记住自己所属的物类。由此看来,全人类的和解征程注定将充满坎坷与泥泞

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